The situation where a player, in error, moves a piece to where it can be captured without an exchange. May be short-term (e.g., after 1.e4 Nf6, Black attacks White's pawn on e4), or long-term. It is a hallmark of the hypermodern openings: the bishops there do not occupy the centre, but influence it. The idea has been tried several times in the last 200 years, but has never caught on. To some extent, development is reactive. A move which attacks the opposing king, and which the opponent cannot get out of. The rules of chess prescribe the types of move a player can make with each type of chess piece. Specifically, the exchange of a rook for a minor piece (bishop or knight). Made when a game is adjourned. An older form of notation, each half of the board describes its squares based in relevance to prices of the board. Now the 50-move rule applies to all games without exception. Fédération Internationale des Échecs: the International Chess Federation. Chess960, also called Fischer Random Chess, is a variant of chess invented and advocated by former world chess champion Bobby Fischer, announced publicly on June 19, 1996, in Buenos Aires, Argentina. To concede loss of the game. Endgames with few pawns or pieces. Software is available which permits chess authors to compose text with diagrams and figurines. A move or series of moves taken to protect a piece or position which is under attack. a lone king. A line in a particular opening. White picks the pieces out of a bag and places them left to right; Black places his pieces on the corresponding squares. Material refers to the chess pieces other than the king, and their respective values. The bishop can move any number of spaces physically possible, but must move only in a diagonal fashion. A spectacle which has been performed since the 15th century. The phrase semi-open file is used when only one pawn blocks a file. The intentional loss of material to get a more important result. An E4 opening could be described as King’s Pawn 4 or Queen’s Knight to queen’s Bishop 3. It is a separate intellectual activity. Unlike the fork, a skewer only works with a line piece (B, R, Q). It is a move, or sequence of moves, to deal with an opponent's plan before it starts. Developing the bishop at the squares b2, g2, b7 or g7. The player is not blind, but sits with his back to the boards, or wears a blindfold. Sometimes one can completely stop the threat; sometimes one just makes the plan relatively harmless. The Arabs (9th/10th centuries) used specially composed positions (mansurbat) as teaching devices; the idea of specifying a set number of moves to mate is European. Method to decide the result of an unfinished game. The game was invented by Henry Michael Temple (1862–1928). The touch & move rule is usually put aside by the organiser; if so starting the opponent's clock is the official end of a move. p319, Promotion is what happens when a pawn reaches the other side of the board (that is, the 8th rank) and cannot move further. Short-term attacks requiring exact calculation, sometimes called 'forcing sequences'. A forcing sequence of moves, usually has a sacrifice, to gain the advantage. A resignation is usually done by stopping the clock, and sometimes by offering a handshake or saying "I resign". Pawns (8 pieces) Pawn. It is usual for studies to be endgame positions. The rook is similar in that it can move any amount of spaces, but only in straight lines. There is an exception to the 50-move rule. System of chess notation in which each square has one name. If there is no legal move, then the player may make any legal move. When a master plays a number of opponents at the same time. Together with standard symbols, this makes texts available for international sale. A king can move only one space at a time in any direction. A knight can move either two squares forward and one square to the left or right, or one square forward, with two squares to the right or left. They help annotate games of chess. There is usually a provision for a player to stop the clock and claim a draw when there is no way for the opponent to win. This is proved because a computer can try out every alternative. Example: when players castle on opposite wings, both attack each other's king, making as few defensive moves as possible. The eight vertical columns on the board, numbered a to h. The phrase open file is used when no pawn blocks a file. Prophylactic moves are often seen in games by Capablanca, Petrosian and Karpov. The point is to avoid opening knowledge. See En passant rule. Also, more generally, the severe restraint of an opponent's position so that it is difficult for him to find active play. The stage of the game with few pieces or when queens are exchanged and the middle game is over. Traditionally, the opening ends when minor pieces (knights and bishops) have been developed, and players have castled. A loss of a tempo would be taking two moves where one would do. Instead, a move is completed only when the player starts the opponent's clock. The intentional exchange of piece of greater value for a piece of smaller value in order to get a more important result. Electronic clocks can also count the moves made, and apply the set time limits for a game.
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