With regard to race relations in particular, Eleanor Roosevelt was able to accomplish what her husband—for delicate political reasons—could not: become the administration’s face for civil rights. The Social Security Act established programs intended to help the most vulnerable: the elderly, the unemployed, the disabled, and the young. While many people supported Roosevelt, especially in the first few years of his presidency, the New Deal did receive significant criticism, both from conservatives who felt that it was a radical agenda to ruin the country’s model of free enterprise, and from liberals who felt that it did not provide enough help to those who needed it most. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. After leaving her post as head of the Women’s Division of the Democratic Party, Molly Dewson (a) later accepted an appointment to the Social Security Board, working with fellow board members Arthur J. Altmeyer and George E. Bigge, shown here in 1937. Still, Roosevelt’s programs also had their critics. In 1935, the head of the United Mine Workers, John L. Lewis, took the lead in forming a new national workers’ organization, the Congress of Industrial Organizations, breaking with the more conservative, craft-oriented AFL. From newspaper and magazine articles she authored, to a busy travel schedule that saw her regularly cross the country, the first lady sought to remind Americans that their plight was foremost on the minds of all working in the White House. A new set of programs promoted by FDR in the spring of 1935 including additional banking reforms, new tax laws, new relief programs; also known as the Second Hundred Days. The president was careful to mitigate some of the criticism from what was, at the time, in the American context, a revolutionary concept. While critics on the left felt that he had not done enough, critics on the right felt that his use of power was frighteningly close to fascism and socialism. Ours were economic issues and we found the women ready to listen.”. With the implementation of the Second New Deal, Roosevelt also created the country’s present-day social safety net. Exposed to issues of racial segregation in the Arthurdale experiment, Eleanor subsequently supported many civil rights causes through the remainder of the Roosevelt presidency. The Second New Deal. As well, the AAA left tenant farmers and sharecroppers, many of whom were black, with no support. The Second New Deal also oversaw the restoration of a highly progressive federal income tax, mandated new reporting requirements for publicly traded companies, refinanced long-term home mortgages for struggling homeowners, and attempted rural reconstruction projects to bring farm incomes in line with urban ones. Although unable to bring about sweeping civil rights reforms for African Americans in the early stages of his administration, Roosevelt was able to work with Congress to significantly improve the lives of Indians. The Social Security Act provided for old-age pensions, unemployment insurance, and economic aid, based on means, to assist both the elderly and dependent children. Roosevelt used previously unheard of levels of government power in his attempt to push the country out of the Great Depression, as artist Joseph Parrish depicts here in this 1937 Chicago Tribune cartoon. The WPA eventually employed 350,000 African Americans annually, accounting for nearly 15 percent of its workforce. While they did not take part in construction projects, these women did undertake sewing projects to provide blankets and clothing to hospitals and relief agencies. (credit: Works Progress Administration). They found that both the AAA and the NIRA overreached federal authority. By the end of this section, you will be able to: Roosevelt won his second term in a landslide, but that did not mean he was immune to criticism. The New Deal adopted a more radical, aggressive approach to poverty, the “Second” New Deal. Bethune was sometimes criticized for working with those in power, but her willingness to build alliances contributed to success in raising money and support for her causes. It laid the groundwork for an agenda of expanded federal government influence over the economy that continued through President Harry Truman’s “Fair Deal” in the 1950s and President Lyndon Johnson’s call for a “Great Society” in the 1960s. It included a pension fund for all retired people—except domestic workers and farmers, which therefore left many women and African Americans beyond the scope of its benefits—over the age of sixty-five, to be paid through a payroll tax on both employee and employer. Finally, the WPA also included the National Youth Administration (NYA), which provided work-study jobs to over 500,000 college students and four million high school students. To this end, Roosevelt created the informally named “Supreme Court Packing Plan” and tried to pack the court in his favor by expanding the number of justices and adding new ones who supported his views. List and Facts about the Second New Deal Programs for kids. Likewise, in 1934, the PWA began to require that all government projects under its purview hire African Americans using a quota that reflected their percentage of the local population being served. The Second New Deal was a continuation and expansion of the original New Deal program enacted by US President Roosevelt during the Great Depression.By 1933, Roosevelt’s New Deal was being criticized, because many felt it did not offer enough relief and that very little had improved in terms of job growth and economic stability. "; Roosevelt signed the last substantial piece of New Deal legislation in the summer of 1938. Critics point out that not all Americans benefited from the New Deal. What challenges did Roosevelt face in his work on behalf of African Americans? Among the few, but notable, women who directly impacted Roosevelt’s policies was Frances Perkins, who as Secretary of Labor was the first female member of any presidential cabinet, and First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt, who was a strong and public advocate for social causes. The Second New Deal also oversaw the restoration of a highly progressive federal income tax, mandated new reporting requirements for publicly traded companies, refinanced long-term home mortgages for struggling homeowners, and attempted rural reconstruction projects to … The subsequent retirement of Justice Van Devanter from the court, as well as the sudden death of Senator Joe T. Robinson, who championed Roosevelt’s plan before the Senate, all but signaled Roosevelt’s defeat. The jobs programs employed over eight million people and, while systematic discrimination hurt both women and African American workers, these programs were still successful in getting people back to work. Convinced of the necessity of such an approach, Roosevelt asked Congress in the spring of 1938 for additional emergency relief spending. When it further became clear that racial discrimination was rampant in the administration of virtually all New Deal job programs—especially in the southern states—she continued to pressure her husband for remedies. It is a dream and an ideal in whose ultimate realization we have a deep and abiding faith. "; A longtime activist in the women’s suffrage movement, Dewson worked for women’s rights and ultimately rose to be the Director of the Women’s Division of the Democratic Party. The Wagner Act permanently established government-secured workers’ rights and protections from their employers, and it marked the beginning of labor’s political support for the Democratic Party. Adding to Roosevelt’s challenges, the Supreme Court struck down several key elements of the First New Deal, angering Roosevelt and spurring him to try and stack the courts in his second term. For African Americans, the Depression once again exposed the racism and inequality that gripped the nation economically, socially, and politically. Agreeing with First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt that “Women must learn to play the games as men do,” Dewson worked diligently in her position with the DNC to ensure that women could serve as delegates and alternates to the national conventions. The biggest threat to the president, however, came from corrupt but beloved Louisiana senator Huey “Kingfish” Long. They would have control over reserve requirements, discount rates, board member selection, and more. The state would then offer jobs to the unemployed to work those farms and factories in a cooperative mode. "; . Whereas the policies of the first hundred days may have shored up public confidence and stopped the most drastic of the problems, the second hundred days changed the face of America for the next sixty years. This photo of Eleanor Roosevelt and Mary McLeod Bethune (second from left) was taken at the opening of Midway Hall, a federal building to house female African American government workers. During his presidency, Roosevelt became the first to appoint a black federal judge, as well as the first commander-in-chief to promote an African American to brigadier general. Definition and Summary of the Second New Deal ProgramsSummary and Definition: The Second New Deal Programs were launched in reaction to political opposition to FDR's New Deal from Congress, the Supreme Court, various political factions and criticism from the public. With the implementation of the Second New Deal, Roosevelt also created the country’s present-day social safety net. The labor protections extended by Roosevelt’s New Deal were revolutionary. Works Progress Administration (WPA) A New Deal agency that helped create 9 million jobs working on bridges, roads, and buildings. To what extent was Franklin Roosevelt’s overwhelming victory in the 1932 presidential election a reflection of his own ideas for change? Another figure who gained national attention was Father Charles Coughlin.