Pledge of Allegiance was written for the 400th anniversary, in 1892, of the discovery of America. ... Beginning with the new word allegiance, I first decided that 'pledge' was a better school word than 'vow' or 'swear'; and that the first person singular should be used, and that 'my' flag was preferable to 'the. Included with the script for ceremonies that would culminate in raising of the flag was the pledge. Bellamy designed it to be recited in 15 seconds. '" Bellamy considered the words "country, nation, or Republic," choosing the last as "it distinguished the form of government chosen by the founding fathers and established by the Revolution. , In September 2013, a case was brought before the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court, arguing that the pledge violates the Equal Rights Amendment of the Constitution of Massachusetts. She has published articles in "Family" magazine. This campaign led to several official attempts to prompt Congress to adopt the Knights of Columbus policy for the entire nation. Subsequently, the Pledge was first used in public schools on October 12, 1892, during Columbus Day observances organized to coincide with the opening of the World's Columbian Exposition (the Chicago World's Fair), Illinois. , An early pledge was created in 1887 by Captain George T. Balch, a veteran of the Civil War, who later became auditor of the New York Board of Education. Bellamy, however, did not approve of the pledge as Balch had written it, referring to the text as "too juvenile and lacking in dignity. 2010. The event was conceived and promoted by James B. Upham, a marketer for the magazine, as a campaign to instill the idea of American nationalism in students and to encourage children to raise flags above their schools. See, Minersville School District v. Gobitis, 310 U.S. 586, 60 S. Ct. 1010, 84 L. Ed. " James Upham "felt that a flag should be on every schoolhouse," so his publication "fostered a plan of selling flags to schools through the children themselves at cost, which was so successful that 25,000 schools acquired flags in the first year (1892–93). 4. The final successful push came from George MacPherson Docherty. From now on, space each section one line apart.  The official name of The Pledge of Allegiance was adopted in 1945.  In a number of states, state flag pledges of allegiance are required to be recited after the pledge to the American flag. " Bellamy then reflected on the sayings of Revolutionary and Civil War figures, and concluded "all that pictured struggle reduced itself to three words, one Nation indivisible. The ritual must be prepared with simplicity and dignity. , A musical setting for "The Pledge of Allegiance to the Flag" was created by Irving Caesar, at the suggestion of Congressman Louis C. Rabaut whose House Resolution 243 to add the phrase "under God" was signed into law on Flag Day, June 14, 1954. In 1923, the National Flag Conference called for the words "my Flag" to be changed to "the Flag of the United States," so that new immigrants would not confuse loyalties between their birth countries and the US. She holds a Doctor of Philosophy in social psychology from the University of Massachusetts. Include who is making the pledge in the next section, which is spaced one line below the date. , Before February 1954, no endeavor to get the pledge officially amended had succeeded. Kruse acknowledges the insertion of the phrase was influenced by the push-back against Russian and Chinese atheistic communism during the Cold War, but argues the longer arc of history shows the conflation of Christianity and capitalism as a challenge to the New Deal played the larger role.. Add the abbreviation “Sec.” for section number and the number itself, which in this case is 4. , At the suggestion of a correspondent, Representative Louis C. Rabaut (D-Mich.), of Michigan sponsored a resolution to add the words "under God" to the Pledge in 1953. Danielle Cort has been a freelance writer since 2008, specializing in psychology, health, education and parenting. Because of the similarity between the Bellamy salute and the Nazi salute, which was adopted in Germany later, the US Congress stipulated that the hand-over-the-heart gesture as the salute to be rendered by civilians during the Pledge of Allegiance and the national anthem in the US would be the salute to replace the Bellamy salute. The words "of America" were added a year later. 05-81142 (S.D. , During the Cold War era, many Americans wanted to distinguish the United States from the state atheism promoted by Marxist-Leninist countries, a view that led to support for the words "under God" to be added to the Pledge of Allegiance.  He spent his adult life in the Chicago area and was chaplain of the Illinois Society of the Sons of the American Revolution. One hot summer evening in August, Bellamy got to work. The Pledge of Allegiance of the United States is an expression of allegiance to the flag of the United States and the republic of the United States of America. The Pledge of Allegiance has been modified several times since then, including the words “the Flag of the United States of America” in 1923 and adding the words, “under God” in 1954. All states except California, Hawaii, Iowa, Vermont, and Wyoming require a regularly scheduled recitation of the pledge in public schools. " Bellamy disliked the change, as "it did injure the rhythmic balance of the original composition.". Constitution. , The Pledge was supposed to be quick and to the point. Cloudflare Ray ID: 5e7bea005a9cf39f , In 2004, linguist Geoffrey Nunberg said the original supporters of the addition thought that they were simply quoting Lincoln's Gettysburg Address, but to Lincoln and his contemporaries, "under God" meant "God willing", so they would have found its use in the Pledge of Allegiance grammatically incorrect and semantically odd. Include all parties involved in the pledge in this section.
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