Crime increased 20% in the study area during this time (Federal Bureau of Investigation [FBI], 2019). However, do not repeat the abbreviation when expressing multiple amounts (e.g., 12-15, 20-23 and 27-30 kHz). Find out what is the full meaning of APA on Abbreviations.com! Other than abbreviations prescribed by APA in reference list elements (e.g., “ed.” for “edition,” “n.d.” for “no date,” etc. For example, a source authored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention would not be abbreviated as CDC in the references list. Other than abbreviations prescribed by APA in reference list elements (e.g., “ed.” for “edition,” “n.d.” for “no date,” etc. See these examples: The patient had been diagnosed with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in March of the previous year. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. Core Journals Covered in CAplus. The only exception to this rule is in. Use brackets if introducing an abbreviation inside parentheses. Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed. Numbers . If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results. APA 6th Toggle Dropdown. (inch), in order to avoid confusion. (2005). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster. Online version; While CASSI is your best source of abbreviations, you can also check the following online sources: Chemical Abstracts Service. Some abbreviations don’t need an explanation if they appear as word entries in the Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary (2005): For example: REM, ESP, AIDS, HIV, NADP, ACTH. The equivalent APA 7 page can be found here.. More information on abbreviations can be found in Sections 6.24-6.31 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.) On the other hand- hour (hr), minute (min), millisecond (ms), nanosecond (ns) and second (s) should be abbreviated. Appendices . Post was not sent - check your email addresses! Second & subsequent citations: (MOH, 2007). (Do not add an apostrophe.). There are some abbreviations that appear in the reference list and/or in citations (see Table 1): Please note that some of them are capitalized while others are not. Onwuegbuzie, A. J., Combs, J. P., Slate, J. R., & Frels, R. K. (2010). Format: et al. Abbreviations should also not be used in headings, table titles, and figure captions. Instead, spell out the full name of the group. Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Abbreviations (APA, 2020, pp. Theses, Patents, Conferences, Technical Reports, How to Format Bibliographical Entries for the Cited Reference Page. For example, instead of writing “12 grams;” you can simply use “12 g.” If, however, you use a unit of measure without a numerical value, write the term out (e.g., “several grams”). Perhaps because using abbreviations in writing comes so intuitively to us, a lot of people don’t give much thought to the fact that the publication manual of the American Psychological Association (APA, 2009) has some specific requirements when it comes to abbreviations. ______________________________________________________________________________________. An example of an acronym is NIMH (standing for "National Institute of Mental Health"). – compare i.e. – that is, e.g. – and so forth vs. – versus. Some groups are recognised by an abbreviation (e.g., WHO for World Health Organisation). In APA, abbreviations should be limited to instances when a) the abbreviation is standard and will not interfere with the reader’s understanding and b) if space and repetition can be greatly avoided through abbreviation. Abbreviations . The patient had been diagnosed with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in March of 2014. Abbreviations are generally useful for long, technical terms in scientific writing and their use is justified if they add to the clarity of the text. There are several Latin abbreviations that appear only in parenthetical material: c.f. It is used in in-text citations where there are 3 or more authors. Brackets . Research in the Schools, 16(2), ix–xxxvi. First text citation: (Ministry of Health [MOH], 2007). An example of an initialism is BBB (standing for "Better Business Bureau"). Editorial: Evidence-based guidelines for avoiding the most common APA errors in journal article submissions. Simply add an “s” to an abbreviation to make it plural. How to use APA style abbreviations in your dissertation. APA Guide Toggle Dropdown. APA Format and Abbreviations in Citations. If you use the phrase three times or fewer, it should be written out every time. To form the plural of abbreviations, just add s at the end: However, this rule does not apply to units of measurement (e.g., 45 m, 23 kg; see below). and in Sections 5.12-5.18 ofthe Concise Guide to APA Style (7th ed.). This is especially true for longer texts, when spelling out the term each time can be less confusing to the reader. Washington DC: Author. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2015), people with TBI often have difficulty with memory and concentration, physical symptoms such as headaches, emotional symptoms such as sadness and irritability, and difficulty falling asleep. – for example viz. However, please note that when used in non-parenthetical material, you should use the English translation of the Latin terms. The core features of the scientific writing style II, Online resources: APA Style and formatting, The origins of APA style (and why there are so many rules). Revised on February 28, 2019. day, week, month, year. I work with five other RNs during a typical shift. Example: Children should learn about family finances in age-appropriate ways (American Psychological Association [APA], 2011). Note: When introducing an abbreviation within a narrative citation, use a comma between the abbreviation and the year. Although the patient explained that she experienced frequent headaches and difficulty concentrating, she had not been regularly taking any medication for her TBI symptoms when she visited the clinic 6 months after her diagnosis. There are a few exceptions to the basic rules: In APA style, "United States: should always be spelled out when it is used as a noun or location. (2020). Martin Vasilev is a final year undergraduate student of Psychology at the University of Sofia, Bulgaria, and the author of some of the most popular posts on JEPS Bulletin (see for example, his post on the most common mistakes in APA style was the most read in the JEPS Bulletin in 2013 and his post on writing literature reviews, which was reprinted in the MBA Edge, a magazine for prospective postgraduate students in Malaysia). Looking for the definition of APA? According to the APA Style, you only use an abbreviation if it is standard, represents something that is repeated frequently in your dissertation, or allows you to save considerable space.